Wednesday, December 15, 2010

SINHARAJA
The famous rain forest in Sri Lanka 
 
What are rain forests
Rain forests are so called because they are wet.Tropical rain forest are defined by their wet and dry seasons. Tropical rain forests are received 160 to 400 inches of rain each year.Those forest help to maintain a regular rainfall.They also stand as a buffer against  floods droughts and erosion.These rain forest produce a significant amount of the world's oxygen.  Rain_forest
  
Sinharaja  
Sinharaja is well known famous rain forest in Sri lanka.Sinharaja is a national park.Sinharaja located Sabaragamuwa and southern Provinces in Sri lanka.It is the only undisturbed rain forest left in Sri lanka.It is about 9000 hector's in extent.Many of the plants are very rare.Over 60% of the tree species are found only in the low  land wet zone of Sri lanka.especially in Sinharaja.If those species of trees are allowed to get destroyed,the world would lose them altogether.  So it is important that much effort is made to conserve this rich,valuable and forgile habitat.This unique rain forest nurtures not only  magnificent tree species that top 40 meters in height , but alsomedicinal plants such as maha hedaya .Endemic extends beyond exotic flora to butterflies , a dozen endemic species of birds and even the rare Ramanella plamata , the only microhylid (genus of frog) recorded so far.
         The sinharaja rain forest is the largest rain forest in Sri lanka. In  1840 Sinharaja become a crown property.In 1988 it was made a National Wilderness area.In 1989 UNESCO included the Sinharaja forest in the world heritage list as the First national Heritage of Sri lanka.
         The Sinharaja forest is home to many rare animals, birds, butterflies, insects, reptiles and trees.Ferns  and mosses grow well as the climate is humid because of heavy rain fall. 
         Conservation of Sinharaja is of vital necessity.It ensures the maintenance of water resources.It also controls floods, which is a constant threat due to heavy rainfall in the area.  
          Sinharaja forest    is  maintained by Department of Forest Conservation. It is government property.No one can enter the Sinharaja forest without permission.Rangers all ways keep eye on it.The drive from Colombo to Sinharaja takes about 4 hours passing through some stunning hill country on the way.                    Sinharaja_Forest_Reserve  


                                                                    
                                                                                          

video
                                                                                 




Access ways
  1. Kudawa entrance - Colombo --> Kalawana --> Kudawa
  2. Pitadeniya Entrance - Galle or Matara --> Deniyaya --> Pitadeniya
  3. Morning Side Entrance -- Galle or Matara --> Deniyaya --> Morning Side Estate
                                                                            


    Rivers of Sinharaja
      Two main rivers are get started from sinharaja rain forest .Those rivers are Kalu ganga and Gin ganga.
      That two rivers which starts from sinharaja are connected to Kalu ganga (    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalu_River  ) by the using Kukulu ganga.



    Animals of Sinharaja                                                                    

        Sinharaja provides a habitat for animals.The plants provide them with food.There are large mammals (Mammal, Link)as well as small ones living there.The purple faced monkey's can be observed easily .They move about in groups.There are herbivores, carnivores as well as mixed feeders.The wild pig ,the sambur ,the mouse deer and the barking deer are same that you find  in the Sinharaja.There is also evidence of the presence of the leopard . Among others are the rusty spotted cat and fishing cat.There are many other varieties of small mammals. 
    (Wild_pig      Mouse_deer    Barking_deer  Rusty-spotted_Cat  
    Fishing_cat )




    Flowers of Sinharaja 
      Sinharaja full of flowers.Many flowers are there.specially Udawediya are famous flowers .4 udawediyas are endemic for the Srilanka.There are Dendrobium diodon , Arundina minor, Podochilus saxatilis, Podochilus falcatus.  
     ( Orchid  )                                                    
    Birds of Sinharaja
       Studies have recorded 147 species of birds.Some threatened species birds are found in the Sinharaja.Among them are blue magpie,the white headed strling and ash headed babler.Birds are the highlight in Sinharaja with 20 out of Sri Lanka's 21 endemic birds having been sighted here.     Even the less experienced birder would hope to see 10-15 endemics during their stay. However it is not just  birds that attract the visitors, number of colorful butterflies floating above the forest floor.
    (Blue_Magpie) 


    Reptiles of Sinharaja
       Studies have recorded 45 varieties of reptiles.These include snakes, lizards and tortoises.The viper and the cobra are among the venomous species.
    Snakes      Lizards      Tortoises                                                         
     

    The trees  in Sinharaja
         Trees are main part of Sinharaja .Tropical rain forest  like sinharaja find 4 major parts of trees.
         A   Canopy                       (30-45 m height trees)
         B   Sub Canopy                (25-30 m height trees)
         C   Under store trees         (20-25 m height trees)
         D   Ground flora                (fern and grass)   
                    
     A   Canopy - There are lot of trees under the canopy.i give you example what are the  trees under the canopy 
    1. Kiri hembiliya (Palaquium grande)     
    2. Hora (Dipterocarpus zeylanicus)
    3. Beraliya  (Dipterocarpus hispidus)                                                                        
     B Sub canopy
    1. Hedawaka  (Chaetocarpus castanocarpus) 
    2. Thawwenna  (Palaquium petioilare)
    3. Katuobdda    (Cullenia rosayroana)
    Many Economical trees are there in Sinharaja ,There are 
    1. Weniwell (Coscinium fenestratum) -People use it to make Ayurveda medicine and  make rope and many more
         2.  Nawadha(Shorea stipularis)
         3. Waldhel  (Artocarpus incisus)- Use it for food and make boat
    More over impotent medical plants are there in Sinharaja .There are
    1.  Badhulla (Semecarpus coriacea)
    2. Dhorana  (Dipterocarpus glandulosus)
    3. Godapara  (Dillenia triquelra)
    4. Gal demata (Impatiens repens)
    5. Ginihiriya  (Exacum trinerva)
        
           we can find more sub parts in Sinharaja. There are                                                             1.Ferns         Fern
      2.Climbers   
      3.Parasites   
                                        
      Why Sinharaja rain forest is very important ?
      1. Sinharaja Forest Reserve is considered one of the most important natural habitats in Sri Lanka. Thi majestic rainforest was deemed an International Man and Biosphere Reserve in 1978 and deservedly designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1989. The forest offers a huge diversity osf species both flora and fauna with a large proportion of those being indigenous to the country and some more specifically endemic to Sinharaja itself.
      2. For countless generations the local people of the Sinharaja have been living sustainably from what the forest provided and today many of the local villagers are continuing to use the forest resources. One of the main resources provided by the forest is jaggery, a crude local sugar product from the Kitul Palm . Used as a source of income for the local people it has been a traditional ingredient to Sri Lankan people for many years. The production of the sugar is for trading at the local weekly markets.
      3. Many indigenous birds such as Layard's parakeet, the Jungle fowl , the Spur fowl ,the Ceylon Wood Pigeon ,the Ceylon Hanging Parrot ,the Brown- capped Babbler,the Red-faced Malkoha and the Ceylon Blue Magpie among others, are prominent in this area.                                                             
      4.  Another historic village tradition and source of income is the use of rattan and bamboo to manufacture baskets and other woven products. Similarly these products can be sold at local markets


      This incalculable value of sinharaja is perhaps best captured in the simple.But effective exhortation to visitors
      "PLEASE LEAVE IT AS YOU FIND IT"
      link for support 
            

                                  

        Sinharaja Forest View, Sri Lanka